Latest Science News -- ScienceDaily

06/30/2022 04:47 PM
Research reveals structure of a human endogenous reverse transcriptase
The crystal structure of a human endogenous reverse transcriptase has similarities to HIV reverse transcriptase, a well-known tractable drug target, which will help design drugs to treat cancer and other diseases, according to a study co-authored by a Rutgers researcher.
06/30/2022 04:00 PM
Bacteria for blastoff: Using microbes to make supercharged new rocket fuel
Biofuel scientists used an oddball molecule made by bacteria to develop a new class of sustainable biofuels powerful enough to launch rockets. The candidate molecules have greater projected energy density than any petroleum product, including the leading aviation and rocket fuels, JetA and RP-1.
06/30/2022 04:00 PM
Researchers discover new leukemia-killing compounds
Researchers have discovered potential new drugs that target mitochondria in cancer cells. Their study in the journal Leukemia describes the compounds' potential for killing leukemia cells when administered by themselves or in combination with other chemotherapies.
06/30/2022 04:00 PM
Gemini North spies ultra-faint fossil galaxy discovered on outskirts of Andromeda
An unusual ultra-faint dwarf galaxy has been discovered on the outer fringes of the Andromeda Galaxy thanks to the sharp eyes of an amateur astronomer. Follow-up by professional astronomers revealed that the dwarf galaxy -- Pegasus V -- contains very few heavier elements and is likely to be a fossil of the first galaxies.
06/30/2022 04:00 PM
Borrowed gene helps maize adapt to high elevations, cold temperatures
An important gene in maize called HPC1 modulates certain chemical processes that contribute to flowering time, and has its origins in 'teosinte mexicana,' a precursor to modern-day corn that grows wild in the highlands of Mexico. The findings provide insight into plant evolution and trait selection, and could have implications for corn and other crops' adaptation to low temperatures.
06/30/2022 02:22 PM
The hawk has landed: Braking mid-air to prioritize safety over energy or speed
New research using computer simulations and Hollywood-style motion capture shows how birds optimize their landing maneuvers for an accurate descent.
06/30/2022 02:22 PM
Signaling molecule potently stimulates hair growth
Researchers have discovered that a signaling molecule called SCUBE3 potently stimulates hair growth and may offer a therapeutic treatment for androgenetic alopecia, a common form of hair loss in both women and men.
06/30/2022 02:22 PM
Developmentally arrested IVF embryos can be coaxed to divide
Why do two-thirds of in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos go into developmental arrest? A new study shows that many embryos stored for IVF undergo characteristic genetic and metabolic changes that inhibit development. These results help explain the loss of developmental ability of many harvested embryos, and may point to strategies for increasing the proportion of developmentally competent embryos.
06/30/2022 02:21 PM
Scientists engineer synthetic DNA to study 'architect' genes
Researchers have created artificial Hox genes -- which plan and direct where cells go to develop tissues or organs -- using new synthetic DNA technology and genomic engineering in stem cells. Their findings confirm how clusters of Hox genes help cells to learn and remember where they are in the body.
06/30/2022 02:21 PM
Dissolving implantable device relieves pain without drugs
Researchers have developed a small, soft, flexible implant that relieves pain on demand and without the use of drugs. The first-of-its-kind device could provide a much-needed alternative to opioids and other highly addictive medications. It works by softly wrapping around nerves to deliver precise, targeted cooling, which numbs nerves and blocks pain signals to the brain. After the device is no longer needed, it naturally absorbs into the body -- bypassing the need for surgical extraction.
06/30/2022 02:21 PM
Sleep triggered by stress can help mice cope with later anxiety
Stress boosts a kind of sleep in mice that subsequently relieves anxiety, according to new research that also pinpoints the mechanism responsible.
06/30/2022 01:48 PM
Cosmological thinking meets neuroscience in new theory about brain connections
A collaboration between a former cosmologist and a computational neuroscientist generates a new way to identify essential connections between brain cells.
06/30/2022 01:48 PM
Optical fiber imaging method advances studies of Alzheimer's disease
An optical fiber as thin as a strand of hair holds promise for use in minimally invasive deep-tissue studies of patients' brains that show the effects Alzheimer's disease and other brain disorders. The challenge is efficiently increasing image resolution at the subcellular level, because loss of information is inevitable from light scrambling.
06/30/2022 01:48 PM
New flood maps clarify the risk homeowners face
Flooding in urban areas cost Americans more than $106 billion between 1960 and 2016, damaging property, disrupting businesses and claiming lives in the process. Now, new research outlines a simplified, cost-effective method for developing flood maps that reflects the uncertainty in flood predictions.
06/30/2022 01:48 PM
Building explainability into the components of machine-learning models
Researchers have created a taxonomy and outlined steps that developers can take to design features in machine-learning models that are easier for decision-makers to understand.
06/30/2022 11:45 AM
How bacteria adhere to cells: Basis for the development of a new class of antibiotics
Researchers have unraveled how bacteria adhere to host cells and thus taken the first step towards developing a new class of antibiotics.
06/30/2022 11:45 AM
Breaking AIs to make them better
Current AIs are very accurate but inflexible at image recognition. Exactly why this is remains a mystery. Researchers have developed a method called 'Raw Zero-Shot' to assess how neural networks handle elements unknown to them. The results have the potential to help researchers identify the common features that make neural networks 'non-robust,' and develop methods to make AIs more reliable.
06/30/2022 11:45 AM
A closer look into the emergence of antibiotic resistance in bioaerosols and its monitoring
While there are many studies that discuss antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in soil and water environments, there is currently very little research that focuses on ARG in aerial environments. In a recent review, researchers have analyzed current research trends regarding ARG in bioaerosols, including their sources, methods of detection, and implications for the future.
06/30/2022 11:45 AM
Hidden in caves: Mineral overgrowths reveal 'unprecedented' sea level rise
Through intricate study of cave deposits in Spain, geologists identified a rapid rise in sea level that started during the Industrial Revolution.
06/30/2022 11:45 AM
Researchers propose widespread banking of stool samples for fecal transplants later in life
Changes in the way that humans live and eat have resulted in tremendous alterations in the gut microbiome, especially over the past few decades. These changes have been linked to increased rates of asthma, allergies, diseases of the digestive system, type 2 diabetes, and other conditions. Scientists propose that we can combat these trends by having individuals bank samples of their own gut microbiota when they are young and healthy for potential use later in life in an autologous fecal microbiota transplant (FMT).
06/30/2022 11:45 AM
Some viruses make you smell tastier to mosquitoes
Zika and dengue fever viruses alter the scent of mice and humans they infect, a team of researchers report. The altered scent attracts mosquitoes, which bite the host, drink their infected blood and then carry the virus to its next victim.
06/30/2022 11:44 AM
How pandas survive solely on bamboo: Evolutionary history
An ancient fossil reveals the earliest panda to survive solely on bamboo and the evolutionary history of panda's false thumbs.
06/30/2022 11:44 AM
Activating the indicator and performing a shoulder check -- essential also for zebra finches
Zebra finches communicate via eye contact and calls to coordinate their spatial positions during flocking flight
06/30/2022 11:44 AM
Common gene used to profile microbial communities
Computer scientists develop Emu, an algorithm that uses long reads of genomes to identify the species of bacteria in a community. The program could simplify sorting harmful from helpful bacteria in microbiomes like those in the gut or in agriculture and the environment.
06/30/2022 11:44 AM
Climate change in oceanwater may impact mangrove dispersal, study finds
Researchers examined 21st century changes in ocean-surface temperature, salinity, and density, across mangrove forests worldwide. Their study suggests that changes in surface-ocean density may impact the dispersal patterns of widely distributed mangroves species, and more likely so in the Indo-West Pacific region, the primary hotspot of mangrove diversity.
06/30/2022 09:57 AM
Laser writing may enable 'electronic nose' for multi-gas sensor
Environmental sensors are a step closer to simultaneously sniffing out multiple gases that could indicate disease or pollution. Researchers combined laser writing and responsive sensor technologies to fabricate the first highly customizable microscale gas sensing devices.
06/30/2022 09:57 AM
Climate change will increase chances of wildfire globally -- but humans can still help reduce the risk
New research highlights how the risk of wildfire is rising globally due to climate change -- but also, how human actions and policies can play a critical role in regulating regional impacts. The study shows that anthropogenic climate change is a 'push' factor that enhances the risk of wildfires globally.
06/30/2022 08:33 AM
Pioneering recycling turns mixed waste into premium plastics with no climate impact
Only a fraction of the material that could be turned into new plastic is currently recycled. Researchers have now demonstrated how the carbon atoms in mixed waste can replace all fossil raw materials in the production of new plastic. The recycling method is inspired by the natural carbon cycle and could eliminate the climate impact of plastic materials, or even clean the air of carbon dioxide.
06/30/2022 08:33 AM
Powerful links between methane and climate change
Using data gathered over the last four decades to study the effects of temperature changes and rain on the atmospheric concentration of methane, scientists have concluded that Earth could be both delivering more, and removing less, methane into the air than previously estimated, with the result that more heat is being trapped in the atmosphere. The study, published in the scientific journal Nature Communications on 23 June, addresses the large uncertainty about the impact of climate change on atmospheric methane. The study finds that this impact could be four times greater than that estimated in the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report.
06/30/2022 08:32 AM
The mere sight of a meal triggers an inflammatory response in the brain
Even before carbohydrates reach the bloodstream, the very sight and smell of a meal trigger the release of insulin. For the first time, researchers have shown that this insulin release depends on a short-term inflammatory response that takes place in these circumstances. In overweight individuals, however, this inflammatory response is so excessive that it can impair insulin secretion.
06/29/2022 08:29 PM
The pair of Orcas deterring Great White Sharks
A pair of Orca (Killer Whales) that have been terrorizing and killing Great White Sharks off the coast of South Africa since 2017 has managed to drive large numbers of the sharks from their natural aggregation site.
06/29/2022 04:11 PM
Capturing an elusive shadow: State-by-state gun ownership
In a new study, researchers describe a spatio-temporal model to predict trends in firearm prevalence on a state-by-state level by fusing data from two available proxies -- background checks per capita and suicides committed with a firearm in a given state. Calibrating their results with yearly survey data, they determined that the two proxies can be simultaneously considered to draw precise information regarding firearm ownership.
06/29/2022 04:11 PM
Romantic partners can influence each other's beliefs and behaviors on climate change
A team of researchers surveyed couples about their ideas on climate change and found that while many partners exhibited similar beliefs and behaviors around the issue, there also were many discrepancies.
06/29/2022 04:10 PM
Shining some light on the obscure proteome
Mass-spectrometry based proteomics is the big-data science of proteins that allows the monitoring of the abundance of thousands of proteins in a sample at once. Therefore, it is a particularly well-suited readout for discovering which proteins are targeted by any small molecule. An international research team has investigated this using chemical proteomics.
06/29/2022 04:09 PM
Study finds women have more brain changes after menopause
Women who have gone through menopause may have more of a brain biomarker called white matter hyperintensities than premenopausal women or men of the same age, according to a new study.