Latest Science News -- ScienceDaily


01/27/2020 04:43 PM
Method detects defects in 2D materials for future electronics, sensors
To further shrink electronic devices and to lower energy consumption, the semiconductor industry is interested in using 2D materials, but manufacturers need a quick and accurate method for detecting defects in these materials to determine if the material is suitable for device manufacture. Now a team of researchers has developed a technique to quickly and sensitively characterize defects in 2D materials.
01/27/2020 04:43 PM
Study examines prostate cancer treatment decisions
A five-year follow-up study of more than 2,000 US men who received prostate cancer treatment is creating a road map for future patients regarding long-term bowel, bladder and sexual function in order to clarify expectations and enable men to make informed choices about care.
01/27/2020 02:54 PM
New study debunks myth of Cahokia's Native American lost civilization
An archaeologist has dug up ancient human feces, among other demographic clues, to challenge the narrative around the legendary demise of Cahokia, North America's most iconic pre-Columbian metropolis.
01/27/2020 02:54 PM
Driven by Earth's orbit, climate changes in Africa may have aided human migration
New research describes a dynamic climate and vegetation model that explains when regions across Africa, areas of the Middle East, and the Mediterranean were wetter and drier and how the plant composition changed in tandem, possibly providing migration corridors throughout time.
01/27/2020 01:49 PM
Finely tuned nervous systems allowed birds and mammals to adopt smoother strides
A study suggests that neuromuscular adaptations in mammals and birds may have allowed them to become more nimble than reptiles and amphibians.
01/27/2020 01:48 PM
New gene correction therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Duchenne type muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common hereditary muscular disease among children, leaving them wheelchair-bound before the age of 12 and reducing life expectancy. Researchers have developed a gene therapy that may provide permanent relief for those suffering from DMD.
01/27/2020 01:48 PM
Earth's most biodiverse ecosystems face a perfect storm
A combination of climate change, extreme weather and pressure from local human activity is causing a collapse in global biodiversity and ecosystems across the tropics, new research shows. The study mapped over 100 locations where tropical forests and coral reefs have been affected by climate extremes such as hurricanes, floods, heatwaves, droughts and fires.
01/27/2020 01:48 PM
Patterns of thinning of Antarctica's biggest glacier are opposite to previously observed
Using the latest satellite technology from the European Space Agency (ESA), scientists have been tracking patterns of mass loss from Pine Island -- Antarctica's largest glacier.
01/27/2020 01:48 PM
New look at odd holes involved in taste, Alzheimer's, asthma
Large holes in our cells have been implicated in depression, Alzehimer's disease, asthma, and even taste. Now, we know what two kinds of these pores look like, potentially creating new opportunities to discover effective treatment options.
01/27/2020 01:48 PM
Benefits of conservation efforts may not yet be fully visible
Last year, a UN report on global biodiversity warned one million species are at risk of extinction within decades, putting the world's natural life-support systems in jeopardy. But new work offers new hope that in some cases, conservation measures may not necessarily be failing, it is just too early to see the progress that is being made.
01/27/2020 01:48 PM
Cutting road transport pollution could help plants grow
Cutting emissions of particular gases could improve conditions for plants, allowing them to grow faster and capture more carbon, new research suggests.
01/27/2020 01:48 PM
Buildings can become a global CO2 sink if made out of wood instead of cement and steel
A material revolution replacing cement and steel in urban construction by wood can have double benefits for climate stabilization. First, it can avoid greenhouse gas emissions from cement and steel production. Second, it can turn buildings into a carbon sink as they store the CO2 taken up from the air by trees that are harvested and used as engineered timber.
01/27/2020 01:48 PM
Parkinson's disease may start before birth
People who develop Parkinson's disease before age 50 may have been born with disordered brain cells that went undetected for decades, according to new research. The research points to a drug that potentially might help correct these disease processes.
01/27/2020 01:48 PM
Oceanographers predict increase in phytoplankton by 2100
A neural network-driven Earth system model has led oceanographers to a surprising conclusion: phytoplankton populations will grow in low-latitude waters by the end of the 21st century.
01/27/2020 01:48 PM
Current model for storing nuclear waste is incomplete
The materials the United States and other countries plan to use to store high level nuclear waste will likely degrade faster than anyone previously knew, because of the way those materials interact, new research shows. The findings show that corrosion of nuclear waste storage materials accelerates because of changes in the chemistry the nuclear waste solution, and because of the way the materials interact with one another.
01/27/2020 01:48 PM
Researchers identify opportunities to advance genomic medicine
New study highlights milestones in the history of genetic discoveries; equitable and fair access required to address disparities.
01/27/2020 01:48 PM
Researchers advance solar material production
A team has developed a more efficient, safer, and cost-effective way to produce cadmium telluride (CdTe) material for solar cells or other applications, a discovery that could advance the solar industry and make it more competitive.
01/27/2020 01:48 PM
Algae shown to improve gastrointestinal health
A green, single-celled organism called Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has served as a model species for topics spanning algae-based biofuels to plant evolution. While algae have been used as dietary nutraceuticals that provide beneficial oils, vitamins, proteins, carbohydrates and antioxidants, the benefits of consuming C. reinhardtii were previously unexplored. Researchers have now completed the first study in humans demonstrating that C. reinhardtii helps improve human gastrointestinal problems related to irritable bowel syndrome, including diarrhea, gas and bloating.
01/27/2020 01:48 PM
More rain and less snow means increased flood risk
By analyzing more than two decades of data in the western US, scientists have shown that flood sizes increase exponentially as a higher fraction of precipitation falls as rain, offering insight into how flood risks may change in a warming world with less snow.
01/27/2020 01:48 PM
Sea level rise to cause major economic impact in the absence of further climate action
Rising sea levels, a direct impact of the Earth's warming climate, is intensifying coastal flooding. The findings of a new study show that the projected negative economy-wide effects of coastal flooding are already significant until 2050, but are then predicted to increase substantially towards the end of the century if no further climate action on mitigation and adaptation is taken.
01/27/2020 01:48 PM
How to take a picture of a light pulse
Until now, complex experimental equipment was required to measure the shape of a light pulse. Now, it can be done in a tiny crystal with the size of less than a milimeter. This can be used to study new materials or even even to reliably and quickly detect diseases by examining tiny blood samples.
01/27/2020 01:47 PM
Science at the interface: Bioinspired materials reveal useful properties
Researchers explore new materials with physical properties that can be custom-tailored to suit particular needs. The work is inspired by mechanisms in nature, where the complex three-dimensional structure of surrounding proteins influences the electrochemical properties of metals at their core.
01/27/2020 01:47 PM
Lab turns trash into valuable graphene in a flash
Scientists are using high-energy pulses of electricity to turn any source of carbon into turbostratic graphene in an instant. The process promises environmental benefits by turning waste into valuable graphene that can then strengthen concrete and other composite materials.
01/27/2020 01:47 PM
With high fiber diets, more protein may mean more bloating
People who eat high fiber diets are more likely to experience bloating if their high fiber diet is protein-rich as compared to carbohydrate-rich, according to a study.
01/27/2020 01:47 PM
How cells sort and recycle their components
What can be reused and what can be disposed of? Cells also face this tricky task. Researchers have now discovered a cellular machine, called FERARI, that sorts out usable proteins for recycling.
01/27/2020 01:47 PM
Keto diet works best in small doses, mouse study finds
A ketogenic diet -- which provides 99 percent of calories from fat and only 1 percent from carbohydrates -- produces health benefits in the short term, but negative effects after about a week, researchers found in a study of mice.
01/27/2020 01:47 PM
AI to help monitor behavior
Algorithms based on artificial intelligence do better at supporting educational and clinical decision-making, according to a new study.
01/27/2020 01:47 PM
Children to bear the burden of negative health effects from climate change
The grim effects that climate change will have on pediatric health outcomes was the focus of a recent article.
01/27/2020 01:47 PM
A sustainable alternative to crude oil
A research team has developed a new polyamide family which can be produced from a byproduct of cellulose production -- a successful example for a more sustainable economy with bio-based materials.
01/27/2020 01:47 PM
Enhancing drug testing with human body-on-chip systems
Scientists have devised a functioning comprehensive multi-Organ-on-a-Chip (Organ Chip) platform that enables effective preclinical drug testing of human drug pharmacology.
01/27/2020 01:47 PM
Nearly all middle school teachers are highly stressed
Researchers have found that 94% of middle school teachers experience high levels of stress, which could contribute to negative outcomes for students. Researchers say that reducing the burden of teaching experienced by so many teachers is critical to improve student success -- both academically and behaviorally.
01/27/2020 01:47 PM
Micro-scaled method holds promise as improved cancer diagnostic platform
A new method analyzes the combination of tumor genetic material (genomics) with deep protein and phosphoprotein characterization (proteomics) using a single-needle core biopsy from a patient's tumor, providing more detailed information about the cancer than conventional approaches.
01/27/2020 01:47 PM
Recreational fishers catching more sharks and rays
Recreational fishers are increasingly targeting sharks and rays, a situation that is causing concern among researchers.
01/27/2020 01:47 PM
Unanticipated response to estrogen at the single cell level
Researchers found that not only do individual mammalian cells in a population fail to respond synchronously to estrogen stimulation, neither do individual gene copies, known as alleles.
01/27/2020 01:47 PM
First-of-its-kind technology lights up lung cancer cells, helps improve patient outcomes
A groundbreaking tumor-highlighting technology -- OTL38 -- enhances the visualization of lung cancer tissue, providing surgeons with a significantly better chance of finding and removing more cancer than previously possible.