Latest Science News -- ScienceDaily

03/28/2023 02:55 PM
Brightest gamma-ray burst ever observed reveals new mysteries of cosmic explosions
Scientists believe the gamma-ray emission, which lasted over 300 seconds, is the birth cry of a black hole, formed as the core of a massive and rapidly spinning star collapses under its own weight.
03/28/2023 02:55 PM
Phthalate alternative may harm brain development and health
Growing concerns over the potential health effects of exposure to phthalates have led to a search for safer alternatives. Researchers found that the chemical acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) might not be the best replacement.
03/28/2023 02:54 PM
Early morning university classes correlate with poor sleep and academic performance
Sleep scientists' analyses show associations between early classes, less sleep, poor attendance and reduced grade point average. Studies in secondary and junior college students have shown that later start times can have positive impacts on grades.
03/28/2023 02:54 PM
Shedding pounds may benefit your heart -- even if some weight is regained
Weight loss was associated with decreased risk factors for cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes for at least five years -- even if some weight was regained, according to a review of research on behavioral weight loss programs. People who lost weight through an intensive behavioral weight loss program had lower systolic blood pressure levels, total cholesterol-to-good cholesterol ratio and HbA1c levels (a diabetes marker), when compared to people who did not participate in a program or participated in a lower-intensity behavioral program.
03/28/2023 02:53 PM
Redness of Neptunian asteroids sheds light on early Solar System
Asteroids sharing their orbits with the planet Neptune have been observed to exist in a broad spectrum of red color, implying the existence of two populations of asteroids in the region, according to a new study by an international team of researchers.
03/28/2023 02:53 PM
Preschoolers prefer to learn from a competent robot than an incompetent human
Researchers found that preschoolers prefer learning from what they perceive as a competent robot over an incompetent human. This study is the first to use both a human speaker and a robot to see if children deem social affiliation and similarity more important than competency when choosing which source to trust and learn from.
03/28/2023 02:52 PM
The powerhouse of the future: Artificial cells
Researchers identify the most promising advancements and greatest challenges of artificial mitochondria and chloroplasts. The team describes the components required to construct synthetic mitochondria and chloroplasts and identifies proteins as the most important aspects for molecular rotary machinery, proton transport, and ATP production. The authors believe it is important to create artificial cells with biologically realistic energy-generation methods that mimic natural processes; replicating the entire cell could lead to future biomaterials.
03/27/2023 04:32 PM
JWST confirms giant planet atmospheres vary widely
Astronomers have found the atmospheric compositions of giant planets out in the galaxy do not fit our own solar system trend.
03/27/2023 04:32 PM
Temperature of a rocky exoplanet measured
An international team of researchers has used NASA's James Webb Space Telescope to measure the temperature of the rocky exoplanet TRAPPIST-1 b. The measurement is based on the planet's thermal emission: heat energy given off in the form of infrared light detected by Webb's Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI). The result indicates that the planet's dayside has a temperature of about 500 kelvins (roughly 450 degrees Fahrenheit) and suggests that it has no significant atmosphere.
03/27/2023 04:32 PM
Bomb-sniffing rodents undergo 'unusual' reproductive transformations
Female giant African pouched rats, used for sniffing out landmines and detecting tuberculosis, can undergo astounding reproductive organ transformations, according to a new study.
03/27/2023 04:32 PM
The Greenland Ice Sheet is close to a melting point of no return
A new study using simulations identified two tipping points for the Greenland Ice Sheet: releasing 1000 gigatons of carbon into the atmosphere will cause the southern portion of the ice sheet to melt; about 2500 gigatons of carbon means permanent loss of nearly the entire ice sheet. Having emitted about 500 gigatons of carbon, we're about halfway to the first tipping point.
03/27/2023 04:06 PM
Beneficial bacteria in the infant gut uses nitrogen from breast milk to support baby's health
A nutrition scientist who has spent his career studying breast milk has demonstrated how beneficial microbes in the gut of infants use nitrogen from human milk to support pediatric nutrition and development.
03/27/2023 11:49 AM
Colorful films could help buildings, cars keep their cool
The cold blast of an air conditioner can be a relief as temperatures soar, but 'A/C' units require large amounts of energy and can leak greenhouse gases. Today, scientists report an eco-friendly alternative -- a plant-based film that cools when exposed to sunlight and comes in many textures and bright, iridescent colors. The material could someday keep buildings, cars and other structures cool without requiring power.
03/27/2023 11:49 AM
New ways to measure curls and kinks could make it easier to care for natural hair
Black women and others with curly or kinky hair encounter a confusing array of haircare options. Advice on the best products to use for a certain type of hair is often contradictory, and the results can be highly variable. Now, scientists are bringing order to this chaos by identifying hair properties that could help users pick the perfect product and achieve consistent results.
03/27/2023 11:49 AM
Two meteorites are providing a detailed look into outer space
If you've ever seen a shooting star, you might have seen a meteor on its way to Earth. Those that land here can be used to peek back in time, into the far corners of outer space or at the earliest building blocks of life. Scientists have conducted some of the most detailed analyses yet on the organic material of two meteorites.
03/27/2023 11:49 AM
Human cells help researchers understand squid camouflage
Squids and octopuses are masters of camouflage. But some aspects of how they become reversibly transparent are still 'unclear,' because researchers can't culture cephalopod skin cells in the lab. Now, researchers have replicated the tunable transparency of squid skin in mammalian cells, which are more easily cultured.
03/27/2023 11:48 AM
Looking from different perspectives! Proper electronic structure of near-infrared absorbing functional dyes discovered
A research group has discovered that near-infrared absorbing dyes, which had previously been considered to have closed-shell electronic structures, have an intermediate electronic structure, between closed- and open-shell structures. They also found that as the wavelength of near-infrared light that can be absorbed becomes longer the contribution of open-shell forms increases within the dye. These newly discovered characteristics are expected to be utilized to develop new near-infrared absorbing dyes that can absorb longer wavelength near-infrared light.
03/27/2023 11:48 AM
Earth's first plants likely to have been branched
A new discovery changes ideas about the origin of branching in plants.
03/27/2023 11:48 AM
Art evokes feelings in the body
A new study reveals that art has a powerful effect on people's bodies and emotions.
03/27/2023 11:48 AM
Surprise effect: Methane cools even as it heats
Most climate models do not yet account for a recent discovery: methane traps a great deal of heat in Earth's atmosphere, but also creates cooling clouds that offset 30% of the heat.
03/27/2023 11:48 AM
Vehicle exhaust filters do not remove ultrafine pollution
Filters fitted to vehicle exhaust systems to remove particulate matter pollution have limited impact on ultrafine particles, new research shows.
03/24/2023 06:44 PM
New type of entanglement lets scientists 'see' inside nuclei
Nuclear physicists have found a new way to see inside nuclei by tracking interactions between particles of light and gluons. The method relies on harnessing a new type of quantum interference between two dissimilar particles. Tracking how these entangled particles emerge from the interactions lets scientists map out the arrangement of gluons. This approach is unusual for making use of entanglement between dissimilar particles -- something rare in quantum studies.
03/24/2023 01:52 PM
Dieting: Brain amplifies signal of hunger synapses
Many people who have dieted are familiar with the yo-yo effect: after the diet, the kilos are quickly put back on. Researchers have now shown in mice that communication in the brain changes during a diet: The nerve cells that mediate the feeling of hunger receive stronger signals, so that the mice eat significantly more after the diet and gain weight more quickly. In the long term, these findings could help developing drugs to prevent this amplification and help to maintain a reduced body weight after dieting.
03/24/2023 01:52 PM
Finding the sweet spot in sugar reductions
Putting less sugar in sodas and reducing the package size of sodas sold in supermarkets may help reduce our collective sugar intake and thus lower the associated health risks. Good news for consumers, but how does it affect manufacturers? Research conducted in the US has shown that marketing diet or sugar-free varieties does not lead to an increase in the overall turnover of soda manufacturers. This is because consumers tend to switch from sugary to sugar-free versions of the same brand. However, reducing the package size of soda does have a positive effect on the sales figures of the brand as a whole.
03/24/2023 09:35 AM
Giant volcanic 'chain' spills secrets on inner workings of volcanoes
Volcanic relics scattered throughout the Australian landscape are a map of the northward movement of the continent over a 'hotspot' inside the Earth, during the last 35 million years.
03/24/2023 09:35 AM
AI 'brain' created from core materials for OLED TVs
A research team develops semiconductor devices for high-performance AI operations by applying IGZO materials widely used in OLED displays.
03/24/2023 09:34 AM
Use age, not weight, to screen for diabetes
Focus on age, not weight, to capture the greatest number of people in all racial and ethnic groups with prediabetes and diabetes, reports a new study. Screening all adults aged 35 to 70 years, regardless of weight, identifies the greatest proportion of adults with prediabetes and diabetes in the U.S. This approach will also maximize the ability to diagnose prediabetes and diabetes across all racial and ethnic groups, Racial/ethnic minority groups develop diabetes at lower weights than white adults.
03/24/2023 09:34 AM
A readily available dietary supplement may reverse organ damage caused by HIV and antiretroviral therapy
MitoQ, a mitochondrial antioxidant that is available to the public as a diet supplement, was found in a mouse study to reverse the detrimental effects that HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) have on mitochondria in the brain, heart, aorta, lungs, kidney and liver.
03/24/2023 09:34 AM
Novel regulatory mechanism of blood clotting discovered
The glycoprotein V of the blood platelets is an important switch point for haemostasis and thrombus formation. This new finding could have great clinical potential.
03/23/2023 05:51 PM
Scientists discover easy way to make atomically-thin metal layers for new technology
A new breakthrough shows how to make MXenes far more quickly and easily, with fewer toxic byproducts.
03/23/2023 03:43 PM
Climate change threatens global fisheries
The diet quality of fish across large parts of the world's oceans could decline by up to 10 per cent as climate change impacts an integral part of marine food chains, a major study has found.
03/23/2023 03:42 PM
Habitat will dictate whether ground beetles win or lose against climate change
The success of North American crops from corn to Christmas trees partly depends on a relatively invisible component of the food web -- ground beetles. Nearly 2,000 species of ground beetle live in North America. New research shows that some of these insects could thrive while others could decline as the climate changes. The team found that the response will largely depend on the species' traits and habitats and could have significant implications for conservation efforts.
03/23/2023 03:42 PM
Global natural history initiative builds groundbreaking database to address 21st century challenges
A group of natural history museums has mapped the total collections from 73 of the world's largest natural history museums in 28 countries. This is the first step of an ambitious effort to inventory global holdings that can help scientists and decision makers find solutions to urgent, wide-ranging issues such as climate change, food insecurity, human health, pandemic preparedness, and wildlife conservation.
03/23/2023 03:42 PM
Eye color genes are critical for retinal health
Metabolic pathways consist of a series of biochemical reactions in cells that convert a starting component into other products. There is growing evidence that metabolic pathways coupled with external stress factors influence the health of cells and tissues. Many human diseases, including retinal or neurodegenerative diseases, are associated with imbalances in metabolic pathways.
03/23/2023 03:42 PM
Can insights from the soapbark tree change the way we make vaccines?
The medicinal secrets of the Chilean soapbark tree have been laid bare, unlocking a future of more potent, affordable, and sustainably sought vaccines. Researchers have taken a major step forward in addressing this problem, by using a combination of genome mining and bioengineering techniques to produce saponin-based vaccine adjuvants in the laboratory without harvesting material directly from trees.